Wednesday, 10 July 2019

Types of Glass on the Chemical Composition


There are three main types of glass:
soda-lime glass (1Na2O : 1CaO : 6SiO2);
• potash-lime glass (1K2O : 1CaO : 6SiO2);
• potash-lead glass (1K2O : 1PbO : 6SiO2).

Soda-lime glass (also "soda-calcium glass", "soda glass", "сrown-glass") can be easily melted, it is soft and therefore easy to process. In addition, it is transparent and light.

Crystal Chandelier
Crystal Chandelier

Potash-lime glass (also “potassium-calcium glass”, “potash glass”), unlike sodium, is more refractory, hard and not so plastic and capable of molding, but it has a strong luster. Previously, it was obtained directly from the ashes of trees, which has a lot of iron, so the glass was greenish. In the 16th century, manganese peroxide was used to bleach such glass. Since it was the forest that gave the raw material for the manufacture of this glass, it was also called forest glass. A pound of potash was a ton of wood.

Potash-lead glass ("lead glass", "crystal", "flint glass", "flint") is obtained by replacing the calcium oxide with lead oxide. This glass is quite soft and fusible, but very heavy, it is characterized by strong brilliance and high refractive index, decomposing light rays into all colors of the rainbow and creating a play of light.

Quartz Glass
Quartz Glass
Quartz glass, obtained by melting high-purity silica materials (usually quartzite, rock crystal), is also widely known. Its chemical formula is SiO2. Features of quartz glass - transparency for ultraviolet rays, refractoriness and near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion. For the latter reason, it is resistant to temperature extremes and uneven heating. According to a legend, once lightning struck a deposit of quartz sand, - that is how people learned that sand can be turned into glass.

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